Arranged Marriages in Egypt: Haven or Last Resort?

Nearly every four years, we add an extra day to the calendar in the form of February 29, also known as Leap Day. While the modern calendar contains days, the actual time it takes for Earth to orbit its star is slightly longer—roughly The difference might seem negligible, but over decades and centuries that missing quarter of a day per year can add up. To ensure consistency with the true astronomical year, it is necessary to periodically add in an extra day to make up the lost time and get the calendar back in synch with the heavens. Many calendars, including the Hebrew, Chinese and Buddhist calendars, are lunisolar, meaning their dates indicate the position of the Moon as well as the position of Earth relative to the sun. Since there is a natural gap of roughly 11 days between a year as measured by lunar cycles and one measured by the Earth’s orbit, such calendars periodically require the addition of extra months, known as intercalary or interstitial months, to keep them on track. Intercalary months, however, were not necessarily regular.

The Hittites and Ancient Anatolia

Islamic Wedding Customs. Muslim Wedding Photos. An Islamic wedding procession in Egypt leads the bride to the home of the groom. The bride, hidden from view in a tentlike covering, is riding the camel. Elaborate processions like this one are chiefly a rural tradition of the Islamic wedding ceremony. Marriage has special importance to Egyptians.

Newly wed brides dance at a mass wedding ceremony in Cairo, Egypt (). By Hanan Fayed, The Cairo Post “There is dishonesty and.

Based on this comparative analysis, I suggest that Herodotus deliberately takes issue with Hecataeus by name at Hdt. I have selected standard translations of ancient authors, making some adaptations. For Herodotus I have relied on both the traditional version by A. Godley in the Loeb Classical Library collection Rev. For all other ancient texts I have quoted from the Loeb translations. Armayor, O. Karageorghis and I. Nicosia: The Foundation, Auger, D. Auger and S. Paris: Centre de Recherches Mythologiques,


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(The term continues to be included in the text of the traditional ketubah, but among the Jews of Elephantine and Aswan, at the southern border of Egypt.

Everyone’s got a know-it-all in the family: the uncle who spits out World Series stats at the drop of a hat, the sister who can list all the James Bond flicks in reverse chronological order, the reptile-enthusiast cousin. We’re proud to be your wedding equivalent—here are 50 wedding facts to ponder as you plan your day:. Hey, brides, tuck a sugar cube into your glove—according to Greek culture, the sugar will sweeten your union. In English tradition, Wednesday is considered the “best day” to marry, although Monday is for wealth and Tuesday is for health.

The groom carries the bride across the threshold to bravely protect her from evil spirits lurking below. Saturday is the unluckiest wedding day, according to English folklore. Funny—it’s the most popular day of the week to marry! Middle Eastern brides paint henna on their hands and feet to protect themselves from the evil eye.

Find out about Muslim wedding rituals. A Swedish bride puts a silver coin from her father and a gold coin from her mother in each shoe to ensure that she’ll never do without. Learn more about Swedish wedding traditions. A Finnish bride traditionally went door-to-door collecting gifts in a pillowcase, accompanied by an older married man who represented long marriage.

The History of the Diamond as an Engagement Ring

Marriage in ancient Israel was very different from marriage today. Although there is a great deal we do not know about Israelite marriage, the biblical texts that speak about it tell us that many Israelite marriage customs were unlike those of modern western societies. First, although girls were expected to be virgins when they got married—and according to Deut could even be put to death if they were found not to be—men were allowed to marry multiple women.

It is hard to know how common polygamy, which entailed a husband being married to more than one woman, really was in ancient Israel.

The date of publication evidently has its share of importance, but the way Next, I move on to a discussion of literary tradition and innovation in order “The Egyptians and the priests told me this much of their history (ἐς μὲν.

She admires its sparkle as he comes in for a sweet embrace. Nobody stood by to instruct them about the proper finger for the engagement ring. They both just knew but neither of them cared about the particulars of proper engagement ring fingers in that moment. Most people who live in a Western culture simply know that the engagement ring almost always goes on the fourth finger of the left hand. But do you know why? The circle represents eternal love, with no beginning or end, but, interestingly enough, the hole of the ring is also symbolic as a gateway or door, leading to things unknown and known.

The History of Engagement and Wedding Rings

This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. Leveled by. Archaeology is the study of the human past using material remains.

The Narmer Palette, an ancient Egyptian ceremonial engraving, depicts the great king Narmer (c. This piece, dating from c. The Egyptian navy at this time was used only to transport troops, not for enemy engagement. territories outside its traditional borders and controlled them for its own benefit.

An engagement or betrothal is the relationship between two people who want to get married, and also the period of time between a marriage proposal and a marriage. The duration of the courtship varies vastly, and is largely dependent on cultural norms or upon the agreement of the parties involved. Long engagements were once common in formal arranged marriages , and it was not uncommon for parents betrothing children to arrange marriages many years before the engaged couple were old enough. This is still common in some countries.

The origins of European engagement in marriage practice are found in the Jewish law Torah , first exemplified by Abraham , and outlined in the last Talmudic tractate of the Nashim Women order, where marriage consists of two separate acts, called erusin or kiddushin , meaning sanctification , which is the betrothal ceremony, and nissu’in or chupah , [a] the actual ceremony for the marriage. Erusin changes the couple’s interpersonal status, while nissu’in brings about the legal consequences of the change of status.

However, in the Talmud and other sources of Jewish law there is also a process, called kiddushin , corresponding to what today is called engagement. Marrying without such an agreement is considered immoral. This was later adopted in Ancient Greece as the gamos and engeysis rituals, although unlike in Judaism the contract made in front of witness was only verbal. Betrothal also called espousal is a formal state of engagement to be married. In Jewish weddings during Talmudic times c.


Love may be a universal language, but wedding and marriage rituals are as diverse as humanity. Elsewhere in the world, a plethora of customs are uniquely expressed by rings that hold cultural value and signify important traditions. Hieroglyphics show Egyptian brides wearing wedding rings almost 5, years ago. Early rings were made from braided hemp or reeds, then bone, leather and ivory.

The ceremony was held at St Mark & St George Coptic Orthodox church in Wanneroo where Lydia and Mina exchanged rings engraved with.

In biblical times, people were married in early youth, and marriages were usually contracted within the narrow circle of the clan and the family. It was undesirable to marry a woman from a foreign clan, lest she introduce foreign beliefs and practices. As a rule, the fathers arranged the match. In those days a father was more concerned about the marriage of his sons than about the marriage of his daughters. No expense was involved in marrying off a daughter.

The father received a dowry for his daughter whereas he had to give a dowry to the prospective father-in-law of his son when marrying him off. The price paid by the father of the groom to the father of the bride was called mohar. Ask me never so much mohar and mattan , and I will give according as ye shall say unto me; but give me the damsel to wife.

The mohar was not always paid in cash. Sometimes it was paid in kind, or in service. The Bible does not specify what was to be done with the mohar in case the marriage agreement was broken by either of the two parties. The mohar was originally the purchase price of the bride, and it is therefore understandable why it was paid by the father of the groom to the father of the bride. In ancient days, marriage was not an agreement between two individuals, but between two families.

Chinese Courtship and Engagement Customs

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An engagement or betrothal is the relationship between two people who want to get married, Customs for engagement rings vary according to time, place, and culture. the ring either on the right middle finger or the left ring [4th] finger, from which, according to ancient Egyptian physicians, a nerve led directly to the heart.

For Mona Fath el-Bab, 33, salon marriages are just a way to meet people when one cannot find a person he or she likes in their circle of acquaintanceship. Both Adel and Fath el-Bab were married after meeting their now-husbands in a salon, and now arrange marriages in Cairo for free. They said that couples get to meet several times before deciding if they want to go ahead and become engaged. The matchmaking task was first assigned to Kawkab by the administration of a mosque in Cairo, and then her circle of acquaintances surpassed her neighborhood but remained primarily in Cairo.

Beauty to men is being fair-skinned, said Adel. When men tell a matchmaker about their preferences, they usually ask for a beautiful, fair skinned and thin woman, said Kawkab. Sometimes they just mean a headscarf, sometimes they mean a big headscarf that also covers the chest, and sometimes they mean a woman who wears only abayas a loose fitting cloak, Fath el-Bab explained, adding that some men set these clothing conditions even if they do not identify as religious themselves.

When he meets her, he can decide for himself whether or not she is beautiful. Adel and Kawkab, however, said they must provide detailed data and a description about potential grooms and brides and even their families.

Wedding ring

Some believe that the oldest recorded exchange of wedding rings comes from ancient Egypt, about years ago. Sedges, rushes and reeds, growing alongside the well-known papyrus were twisted and braided into rings for fingers an other decorative ornaments worn by the women in those days. The circle was the symbol of eternity, with no beginning or end, not only to the Egyptians, but many other ancient cultures. The hole in the center of the ring also had significance.

To give a woman a ring signifies never-ending and immortal love. Rather than offering a ring to a woman as a symbol of love, they awarded them as a symbol of ownership.

Although the Egyptians are often given credit towards its creation, In Roman tradition the engagement would occur in front of witnesses, perhaps in a an auspicious date (Chinese Marriage through a foreigner’s Eyes).

Ah, the romance of the ring. But how did it become a marriage symbol, and why is the fourth finger of your left hand the lucky recipient? Here are the history, traditions and purported powers of engagement and wedding rings. It’s believed the pharaohs of Egypt first used the circle, a shape with no beginning or end, as a symbol of eternity, but wearing a ring as a public pledge to honor the marriage contract did not become customary until Roman times.

The earliest rings were made of simple iron, but gold rings set with gems were fashionable by medieval days. The most popular gems were symbolic—a red ruby was the color of the heart, a blue sapphire reflected the heavens—but the most coveted and powerful gem was the indestructible diamond. The word “diamond” is derived from the Greek word adamas , which means “the unconquerable.

But the real pull of these sparkly stones, which ancient Greeks believed were delicate splinters of fallen stars, came from the powers and protection they offered the wearer. In India, where diamonds were first discovered, they were thought to be a shield from the combined forces of evil which at that time included snakes, poison and theft. Ancient astrologers believed diamonds promoted lasting love and warded off witchcraft and nightmares.

Associated with everything from innocence to sexual power and all-encompassing protection, you can see why the diamond became the betrothal gift of choice for lads and ladies.

Foreign marriage in Egypt